Code Examples with Z1

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Contents

Intro

Programming and using the Z1 is extremely easy because of TinyOS. Once you have a working TinyOS installation with Z1 support you can start with the coding examples below.

Even if you still haven't used TinyOS, the main goal of this guide is to provide you snippets of code so you can merge them and start creating great applications and projects!

The code in this page tries to show how to use the most basic components of the Z1, but this examples are quite limited and there are a few more complex programs available here

The basics, let's Blink

The Blink application is the most basic. Here you will learn how to use the Timers and the Leds.

Lets start our application creating a folder for our project

mkdir Blink

Inside this directory you need at least 3 files, the Makefile, the Application Configuration (wich declares the components used in our application) and the Application Program (which implements our application).

Makefile contains:

COMPONENT=BlinkAppC
include $(MAKERULES)

BlinkAppC.nc contains:

configuration BlinkAppC
{
}
implementation
{
  components MainC, BlinkC as App;
  App -> MainC.Boot;
 
  components LedsC;
  App.Leds -> LedsC;
 
  components new TimerMilliC() as TimerBlink;
  App.TimerBlink -> TimerBlink;
}

BlinkC.nc contains:

#include "Timer.h"
 
module BlinkC
{
  uses interface Timer<TMilli> as TimerBlink;
  uses interface Leds;
  uses interface Boot;
}
implementation
{
  event void Boot.booted()
  {
    call TimerBlink.startPeriodic( 250 );
  }
 
  event void TimerBlink.fired()
  {
    call Leds.led0Toggle();
    call Leds.led1Toggle();
    call Leds.led2Toggle();
  }
 
}

Once you have all this files connect a Z1 to your USB port and lets compile:

make z1
mkdir -p build/z1
    compiling BlinkAppC to a z1 binary
ncc -o build/z1/main.exe  -Os -fnesc-separator=__  -mdisable-hwmul  -Wall -Wshadow -Wnesc-all -gcc=/opt/msp430/bin/msp430-gcc
-mmcu=msp430x261 -target=z1 -fnesc-cfile=build/z1/app.c -fnesc-separator=__ -board= -DDEFINED_TOS_AM_GROUP=0x22 -DIDENT_APPNAME=\"BlinkAppC\"
-DIDENT_USERNAME=\"xorduna\" -DIDENT_HOSTNAME=\"xorduna\" -DIDENT_USERHASH=0x490e96b5L -DIDENT_TIMESTAMP=0x4afc5e9bL -DIDENT_UIDHASH=0xe6433079L
BlinkAppC.nc -lm 
    compiled BlinkAppC to build/z1/main.exe
            2200 bytes in ROM
              34 bytes in RAM
msp430-objcopy --output-target=ihex build/z1/main.exe build/z1/main.ihex
    writing TOS image

and install:

make z1 reinstall
cp build/z1/main.ihex build/z1/main.ihex.out
    found mote on /dev/ttyUSB1 (using bsl,auto)
    installing z1 binary using bsl
z1-bsl --z1 -c /dev/ttyUSB1 -r -e -I -p build/z1/main.ihex.out
MSP430 Bootstrap Loader Version: 1.39-goodfet-8
Mass Erase...
Transmit default password ...
Invoking BSL...
Transmit default password ...
Current bootstrap loader version: 2.13 (Device ID: f26f)
Changing baudrate to 38400 ...
Program ...
2264 bytes programmed.
Reset device ...
rm -f build/z1/main.exe.out build/z1/main.ihex.out 

Do you see the Z1 blinking?

You can grab the code from Zolertia svn:

svn co https://zolertia.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/zolertia/tinyos-2.1.1/apps/Blink Blink

Hug me, push the button

You have seen that there are two tiny buttons on the Z1, one is the reset and the other one is the user button. Let's use it to bring some input to our application.

First we need to create a folder for our new program

mkdir Button

As last chapter, we will create 3 files

Makefile contains:

COMPONENT=ButtonAppC
include $(MAKERULES)

ButtonAppC contains:

configuration ButtonAppC
{
}
implementation
{
  components MainC, ButtonC as App;
  App -> MainC.Boot;
 
  components LedsC;
  App.Leds -> LedsC;
 
  components UserButtonC;
  App.Button -> UserButtonC;
 
}

ButtonC contains:

#include "UserButton.h"
 
module ButtonC
{
  uses interface Leds;
  uses interface Boot;
  uses interface Notify<button_state_t> as Button;
}
implementation
{
  event void Boot.booted()
  {
	call Button.enable();
  }
 
  event void Button.notify(button_state_t val) {
  	if(val == BUTTON_RELEASED) {
		call Leds.led0Off();
	} else {
		call Leds.led0On();
	}
  }
 
}

Now we are ready to compile and install the program:

make z1 install
mkdir -p build/z1
   compiling ButtonAppC to a z1 binary
ncc -o build/z1/main.exe  -Os -fnesc-separator=__  -mdisable-hwmul  -Wall -Wshadow -Wnesc-all
-gcc=/opt/msp430/bin/msp430-gcc -mmcu=msp430x261 -target=z1 -fnesc-cfile=build/z1/app.c -fnesc-separator=__ -board=
-DDEFINED_TOS_AM_GROUP=0x22 -DIDENT_APPNAME=\"ButtonAppC\" -DIDENT_USERNAME=\"xorduna\" -DIDENT_HOSTNAME=\"xorduna\"
-DIDENT_USERHASH=0x490e96b5L -DIDENT_TIMESTAMP=0x4afc639aL -DIDENT_UIDHASH=0x7a0c6a30L  ButtonAppC.nc -lm 
    compiled ButtonAppC to build/z1/main.exe
            1538 bytes in ROM
               6 bytes in RAM
msp430-objcopy --output-target=ihex build/z1/main.exe build/z1/main.ihex
    writing TOS image
cp build/z1/main.ihex build/z1/main.ihex.out
    found mote on /dev/ttyUSB1 (using bsl,auto)
    installing z1 binary using bsl
z1-bsl --z1 -c /dev/ttyUSB1 -r -e -I -p build/z1/main.ihex.out
MSP430 Bootstrap Loader Version: 1.39-goodfet-8
Mass Erase...
Transmit default password ...
Invoking BSL...
Transmit default password ...
Current bootstrap loader version: 2.13 (Device ID: f26f)
Changing baudrate to 38400 ...
Program ...
1602 bytes programmed.
Reset device ...
rm -f build/z1/main.exe.out build/z1/main.ihex.out 

To use it, simply press the user button and see what happens!

You can grab the code from Zolertia svn:

svn co https://zolertia.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/zolertia/tinyos-2.1.1/apps/Button Button

Where is the keyboard? printf using Z1

So you want to start getting data without caring about nothing, in a standard application you would like to printf, but where is the keyboard or screen here? Well, we do not have keyboard yet, but I think I can give you a small console. Let's explore the printf function. This time the program we are going to create will be called Print

mkdir Print
cd Print

We create the Makefile:

COMPONENT=PrintAppC
CFLAGS += -DPRINTFUART_ENABLED
include $(MAKERULES)

Do you see the CFLAGS option? Using this option we can pass flags to the compiler, for example the flag to enable PRINTF.

We create the PrintAppC.nc file:

configuration PrintAppC
{
}
implementation
{
  components MainC, PrintC as App;
  App -> MainC.Boot;
 
  components LedsC;
  App.Leds -> LedsC;
 
  components new TimerMilliC() as TimerPrint;
  App.TimerPrint -> TimerPrint;
 
}

We create the PrintC.nc file:

#include "printfZ1.h"
 
module PrintC
{
  uses interface Boot;
  uses interface Leds;
  uses interface Timer<TMilli> as TimerPrint;
}
implementation
{
  uint8_t counter; 
 
  event void Boot.booted()
  {
	printfz1_init();
	counter = 0;
	call TimerPrint.startPeriodic( 1024 );
  }
 
  event void TimerPrint.fired()
  {
    call Leds.led0Toggle();
    printfz1("Print num: %d\n", counter);
    counter++;
  }
 
}

Remember to include "printfZ1.h" to get printfz1 working. It is necessary also to initizalize the printf module as you can see on Boot.booted().

Lets compile and install:

make z1 install
mkdir -p build/z1
    compiling PrintAppC to a z1 binary
ncc -o build/z1/main.exe  -Os -fnesc-separator=__  -mdisable-hwmul  -Wall -Wshadow -Wnesc-all -gcc=/opt/msp430/bin/msp430-gcc
-mmcu=msp430x261 -target=z1 -fnesc-cfile=build/z1/app.c -fnesc-separator=__ -board= -DDEFINED_TOS_AM_GROUP=0x22
-DPRINTFUART_ENABLED -DIDENT_APPNAME=\"PrintAppC\" -DIDENT_USERNAME=\"xorduna\" -DIDENT_HOSTNAME=\"xorduna\"
-DIDENT_USERHASH=0x490e96b5L -DIDENT_TIMESTAMP=0x4afc65daL -DIDENT_UIDHASH=0x1667e39bL  PrintAppC.nc -lm 
In file included from PrintC.nc:1:
/opt/tinyos-2.1.1/tos/platforms/z1/printfZ1.h:96:2: warning: #warning including printfZ1
    compiled PrintAppC to build/z1/main.exe
            4040 bytes in ROM
             298 bytes in RAM
msp430-objcopy --output-target=ihex build/z1/main.exe build/z1/main.ihex
    writing TOS image
cp build/z1/main.ihex build/z1/main.ihex.out
    found mote on /dev/ttyUSB1 (using bsl,auto)
    installing z1 binary using bsl
z1-bsl --z1 -c /dev/ttyUSB1 -r -e -I -p build/z1/main.ihex.out
MSP430 Bootstrap Loader Version: 1.39-goodfet-8
Mass Erase...
Transmit default password ...
Invoking BSL...
Transmit default password ...
Current bootstrap loader version: 2.13 (Device ID: f26f)
Changing baudrate to 38400 ...
Program ...
4104 bytes programmed.
Reset device ...
rm -f build/z1/main.exe.out build/z1/main.ihex.out

Once the program is running on the Z1, you can see the output with a serial console program such as picocom or putty setting the baudrate to 115200. For example:

picocom -b 115200 /dev/ttyUSB0

(Where /dev/ttyUSB0 is the usb port where the Z1 is connected).

You can grab the code from Zolertia svn:

svn co https://zolertia.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/zolertia/tinyos-2.1.1/apps/Print Print

Warm and toasty, sensing the temperature

In this example you will know how to sense the temperature using the digital built-in temperature sensor.

As before, we need the Makefile:

COMPONENT=TemperatureAppC
CFLAGS += -DPRINTFUART_ENABLED
include $(MAKERULES)

The configuration TemperatureAppC.nc:

configuration TemperatureAppC
{
}
implementation
{
  components MainC, TemperatureC as App;
  App -> MainC.Boot;
 
  components LedsC;
  App.Leds -> LedsC;
 
  components new TimerMilliC() as TimerTemperature;
  App.TimerTemperature -> TimerTemperature;
 
  components new SimpleTMP102C();
  App.Temperature -> SimpleTMP102C;    
 
}

And the application TemperatureC.nc

#include "printfZ1.h"
 
module TemperatureC
{
  uses interface Boot;
  uses interface Leds;
  uses interface Timer<TMilli> as TimerTemperature;
  uses interface Read<uint16_t> as Temperature; 
}
implementation
{
  event void Boot.booted()
  {
	printfz1_init();
	call TimerTemperature.startPeriodic( 1024 );
  }
 
  event void TimerTemperature.fired()
  {
    call Leds.led0Toggle();
    call Temperature.read();
  }
 
  event void Temperature.readDone(error_t error, uint16_t data){
    printfz1("  +  Temperature (%d)\n", data);
  }  
 
}

You can grab the code from Zolertia svn:

svn co https://zolertia.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/zolertia/tinyos-2.1.1/apps/Temperature Temperature

Move your body, sense the accelerometer

In this example we will discover how to get the data from the accelerometer.

Makefile:

COMPONENT=AccelerometerAppC
CFLAGS += -DPRINTFUART_ENABLED
include $(MAKERULES)

AccelerometerAppC.nc:

configuration AccelerometerAppC
{
}
implementation
{
  components MainC, AccelerometerC as App;
  App -> MainC.Boot;
 
  components LedsC;
  App.Leds -> LedsC;
 
  components new TimerMilliC() as TimerAccel;
  App.TimerAccel -> TimerAccel;
 
  components new ADXL345C();
  App.Zaxis -> ADXL345C.Z;
  App.Yaxis -> ADXL345C.Y;
  App.Xaxis -> ADXL345C.X;
  App.AccelControl -> ADXL345C.SplitControl;
}

AccelerometerC.nc:

#include "printfZ1.h"
 
module AccelerometerC
{
  uses interface Boot;
  uses interface Leds;
  uses interface Timer<TMilli> as TimerAccel;
  uses interface Read<uint16_t> as Zaxis;  
  uses interface Read<uint16_t> as Yaxis;  
  uses interface Read<uint16_t> as Xaxis;  
  uses interface SplitControl as AccelControl;  
 
}
implementation
{
  event void Boot.booted()
  {
	printfz1_init();
	call AccelControl.start();
  }
 
  event void TimerAccel.fired()
  {
    call Leds.led0Toggle();
    call Xaxis.read();
  }
 
  event void AccelControl.startDone(error_t err) {
  	printfz1("  +  Accelerometer Started\n");
    call TimerAccel.startPeriodic( 1000 );
  }
 
  event void AccelControl.stopDone(error_t err) {
 
  }
 
  event void Xaxis.readDone(error_t result, uint16_t data){
  	printfz1("  +  X (%d) ", data);
    call Yaxis.read();
  }
 
  event void Yaxis.readDone(error_t result, uint16_t data){
  	printfz1(" Y (%d) ", data);
    call Zaxis.read();
  }
 
  event void Zaxis.readDone(error_t result, uint16_t data){
  	printfz1(" Z (%d) \n", data);
  }
 
}

after compile and install, you can see the output using the serial console (putty or picocom)

You can grab the code from Zolertia svn:

svn co https://zolertia.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/zolertia/tinyos-2.1.1/apps/Accelerometer Accelerometer

Antenna is for wireless communication

We will write 3 applications. The first one will send packets over the radio, the second one will receive packets over the radio and blink when it receives a package and the third one will send and receive simultaneously.

Sender Application

We create the directory

mkdir Sender
cd Sender

We create the Makefile

COMPONENT=SenderAppC
include $(MAKERULES)

We create the SenderAppC.nc file

#include "Wireless.h"
 
configuration SenderAppC {}
implementation {
  components SenderC as App;
 
  components MainC;
  App.Boot -> MainC.Boot;
 
  components LedsC;
  App.Leds -> LedsC;
 
 
  components new AMSenderC(AM_WIRELESS_MSG);
  App.AMSend -> AMSenderC;
  App.Packet -> AMSenderC;
 
  components new TimerMilliC();
  App.TimerWireless -> TimerMilliC;
 
  components ActiveMessageC;
  App.AMControl -> ActiveMessageC;
 
}

We create the SenderC.nc file

#include "Timer.h"
#include "Wireless.h"
 
module SenderC {
   uses interface Leds;
   uses interface Boot;
   uses interface AMSend;
   uses interface Timer<TMilli> as TimerWireless;
   uses interface SplitControl as AMControl;
   uses interface Packet;
}
implementation {
 
  message_t packet;
 
  bool locked;
  uint16_t counter = 0;
 
  event void Boot.booted() {
    call AMControl.start();
  }
 
  event void AMControl.startDone(error_t err) {
    if (err == SUCCESS) {
      call TimerWireless.startPeriodic(250);
    }
    else {
      call AMControl.start();
    }
  }
 
  event void AMControl.stopDone(error_t err) {
    // do nothing
  }
 
  event void TimerWireless.fired() {
    counter++;
    if (locked) {
      return;
    }
    else {
      wireless_msg_t* rcm = (wireless_msg_t*)call Packet.getPayload(&packet, sizeof(wireless_msg_t));
      if (rcm == NULL) {
	return;
      }
 
      rcm->counter = counter;
      if (call AMSend.send(AM_BROADCAST_ADDR, &packet, sizeof(wireless_msg_t)) == SUCCESS) {
	locked = TRUE;
      }
    }
  }
 
  event void AMSend.sendDone(message_t* bufPtr, error_t error) {
    if (&packet == bufPtr) {
      locked = FALSE;
    }
  }
 
}

We create the Wireless.h file

#ifndef WIRELESS_H
#define WIRELESS_H
 
typedef nx_struct wireless_msg {
  nx_uint16_t counter;
} wireless_msg_t;
 
enum {
  AM_WIRELESS_MSG = 23,
};
 
#endif

Finally to program the device we have to run

make z1 install

Receiver Application

We create the directory

mkdir Receiver
cd Receiver

We create the Makefile:

COMPONENT=ReceiverAppC
include $(MAKERULES)

We create the ReceiverAppC.nc file:

#include "Wireless.h"
 
configuration ReceiverAppC {}
implementation {
  components ReceiverC as App;
 
  components MainC;
  App.Boot -> MainC.Boot;
 
  components LedsC;
  App.Leds -> LedsC;
 
  components new AMReceiverC(AM_WIRELESS_MSG);
  App.Receive -> AMReceiverC;
 
  components ActiveMessageC;
  App.AMControl -> ActiveMessageC;
 
}

We create the ReceiverC.nc file:

#include "Wireless.h"
 
module ReceiverC {
   uses interface Leds;
   uses interface Boot;
   uses interface Receive;
   uses interface SplitControl as AMControl;
   uses interface Packet;
}
implementation {
 
  message_t packet;
 
  bool locked;
  uint16_t counter = 0;
 
  event void Boot.booted() {
    call AMControl.start();
  }
 
  event void AMControl.startDone(error_t err) {
    if (err == SUCCESS) {
      // do nothing
    }
    else {
      call AMControl.start();
    }
  }
 
  event void AMControl.stopDone(error_t err) {
    // do nothing
  }
 
  event message_t* Receive.receive(message_t* bufPtr, 
				   void* payload, uint8_t len) {
    if (len != sizeof(wireless_msg_t)) {return bufPtr;}
    else {
      wireless_msg_t* rcm = (wireless_msg_t*)payload;
 
      if (rcm->counter & 0x1) call Leds.led0On();
      else call Leds.led0Off();
 
      if (rcm->counter & 0x2) call Leds.led1On();
      else call Leds.led1Off();
 
      if (rcm->counter & 0x4) call Leds.led2On();
      else call Leds.led2Off();
 
      return bufPtr;
    }
  }
 
}

we create the Wireless.h file

#ifndef WIRELESS_H
#define WIRELESS_H
 
typedef nx_struct wireless_msg {
  nx_uint16_t counter;
} wireless_msg_t;
 
enum {
  AM_WIRELESS_MSG = 23,
};
 
#endif

Finally we compile and program the Z1

make z1 install

Sender and Receiver Application

We create the directory

mkdir Wireless
cd Wireless

We create the Makefile

COMPONENT=WirelessAppC
include $(MAKERULES)

We create a file called WirelessAppC.nc:

#include "Wireless.h"
 
configuration WirelessAppC {}
implementation {
  components WirelessC as App;
 
  components MainC;
  App.Boot -> MainC.Boot;
 
  components LedsC;
  App.Leds -> LedsC;
 
 
  components new AMSenderC(AM_WIRELESS_MSG);
  App.AMSend -> AMSenderC;
  App.Packet -> AMSenderC;
 
  components new AMReceiverC(AM_WIRELESS_MSG);
  App.Receive -> AMReceiverC;
 
  components new TimerMilliC();
  App.TimerWireless -> TimerMilliC;
 
  components ActiveMessageC;
  App.AMControl -> ActiveMessageC;
 
}

We create a file called WirelessC.nc

#include "Timer.h"
#include "Wireless.h"
 
module WirelessC {
   uses interface Leds;
   uses interface Boot;
   uses interface Receive;
   uses interface AMSend;
   uses interface Timer<TMilli> as TimerWireless;
   uses interface SplitControl as AMControl;
   uses interface Packet;
}
implementation {
 
  message_t packet;
 
  bool locked;
  uint16_t counter = 0;
 
  event void Boot.booted() {
    call AMControl.start();
  }
 
  event void AMControl.startDone(error_t err) {
    if (err == SUCCESS) {
      call TimerWireless.startPeriodic(250);
    }
    else {
      call AMControl.start();
    }
  }
 
  event void AMControl.stopDone(error_t err) {
    // do nothing
  }
 
  event void TimerWireless.fired() {
    counter++;
    if (locked) {
      return;
    }
    else {
      wireless_msg_t* rcm = (wireless_msg_t*)call Packet.getPayload(&packet, sizeof(wireless_msg_t));
      if (rcm == NULL) {
	return;
      }
 
      rcm->counter = counter;
      if (call AMSend.send(AM_BROADCAST_ADDR, &packet, sizeof(wireless_msg_t)) == SUCCESS) {
	locked = TRUE;
      }
    }
  }
 
  event message_t* Receive.receive(message_t* bufPtr, 
				   void* payload, uint8_t len) {
    if (len != sizeof(wireless_msg_t)) {return bufPtr;}
    else {
      wireless_msg_t* rcm = (wireless_msg_t*)payload;
 
      if (rcm->counter & 0x1) call Leds.led0On();
      else call Leds.led0Off();
 
      if (rcm->counter & 0x2) call Leds.led1On();
      else call Leds.led1Off();
 
      if (rcm->counter & 0x4) call Leds.led2On();
      else call Leds.led2Off();
 
      return bufPtr;
    }
  }
 
  event void AMSend.sendDone(message_t* bufPtr, error_t error) {
    if (&packet == bufPtr) {
      locked = FALSE;
    }
  }
 
}

We create the Wireless.h file

#ifndef WIRELESS_H
#define WIRELESS_H
 
typedef nx_struct wireless_msg {
  nx_uint16_t counter;
} wireless_msg_t;
 
enum {
  AM_WIRELESS_MSG = 23,
};
 
#endif

We finally compile and program the Z1

make z1 install

The sensor is out there, external sensors

Log the data, using the external memory

The Z1 provides a memory chip with flash memory. This memory is permanent, if the device is rebooted or reprogrammed the data stored there will continue there. While reads are easy, to be able to write into the memory we need to erase the block and then write it back. If we want to keep the data stored and only modify a bit we'll need to read the whole block to ram, modify the bit and write the block back into the flash memory. This example reads a value stored in the memory increments the value by 1, stores it back to the flash memory and lits the leds accordingly to the value stored. The makefile:

COMPONENT=MemoryExampleAppC
include $(MAKERULES)

The MemoryExampleAppC.nc file:

#include "StorageVolumes.h"
 
configuration MemoryExampleAppC {}
implementation {
  components MemoryExampleC as App;
 
  components MainC;
  App.Boot -> MainC.Boot;
 
  components new BlockStorageC(VOLUME_BLOCKTEST);
  App.BlockWrite -> BlockStorageC.BlockWrite;
  App.BlockRead -> BlockStorageC.BlockRead;
 
  components LedsC;
  App.Leds -> LedsC;
}

The MemoryExampleC.nc

module MemoryExampleC {
  uses interface Boot;
  uses interface Leds;
  uses interface BlockWrite;
  uses interface BlockRead;
} 
implementation {
  uint8_t data[64];
 
  event void Boot.booted() {
    call BlockRead.read(0, data, 64);
  }
 
  event void BlockRead.readDone(storage_addr_t x, void* buf, storage_len_t y, error_t result) {
    if (result != SUCCESS)
    {
      call Leds.led0On();
    }
    else 
    {
      call Leds.set(2);
      if(TOS_NODE_ID==0)
      {
	data[0]++;
      }
      else 
      {
	data[0]=TOS_NODE_ID;
      }
      call BlockWrite.erase();
    }
  }
 
  event void BlockWrite.eraseDone(error_t result) {
    if (result != SUCCESS)
    {
      call Leds.led0On();
    }
    else
    {
      call Leds.set(6);
      call BlockWrite.write(0, data, 64);
    }
  }
 
  event void BlockWrite.writeDone(storage_addr_t x, void* buf, storage_len_t y, error_t result) {
    if (result != SUCCESS)
    {
      call Leds.led0On();
    }
    else
    {
      call Leds.set(4);
      call BlockWrite.sync();
    }
  }
 
  event void BlockWrite.syncDone(error_t result) {
    if(result == SUCCESS)
    {
      call Leds.set(data[0]);
    }
    else call Leds.led0On();
  }
 
  event void BlockRead.computeCrcDone(storage_addr_t x, storage_len_t y, uint16_t z, error_t result) {
  }
 
}

The volumes-stm25p.xml:

<volume_table>
  <volume name="BLOCKTEST" size="262144"/>
</volume_table>
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